Organizational Behavior through a study of individual behavior
Organizational behavior has consumed much of the attention of the business scholars trying to define and determine the business issues and trends. It is commonly anticipated that the individual needs, aspirations, and motivation play very important role in leading the organizations towards its objectives. It is for exploration of these areas that this report has been prepared.
- Team and group working skills
- Decision making
Farxod Jumaboev, the former director of the 24th boarding school in Asaka city, has been chosen to study in terms of his individual behavior from the Organizational Behavior. His impact on many past and present students of the boarding school, the community, and personally on me has been enormous. To illustrate that, I found out about his Personality, Motivation, Leadership, Decision making, and team and group working skills by interviewing him and his colleagues and basing on my own observations from past experiences. In presenting the report reflecting on my findings about Mr. Jumaboev, I have made references to the existing literature, used notable theories and formulas in explaining Mr. Jumaboev in the areas above mentioned.
Farxod Jumaboev, 64 of age, has worked all his life as a teacher of English and German languages. Over the course of his employment, he has held many positions from ordinary teacher to finally the director of the 24th boarding school. Below, I reflect on five areas in which Mr. Jumaboev is described.
Personality refers to the “stable characteristics which explain why a person behaves in a particular way” as Mullins L (2005 p. 339) describes it. There are several characteristics describing personality such as independence, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and self-control. It is necessary to know one’s personality but from the OB perspective, knowing and understanding an individual personality does shape the objectives of the organization and the means of achieving those objectives.
However, to describe individual personality, there would be millions of adjectives and misunderstandings and confusions. This explains why there are scholars who have invested their time on studying and inventing certain theories and formulas that explain and categorize the personalities. To describe Mr. Jumaboev’s personality, I used Jung’s theory.
Jung’s theory states that personalities may belong to one of the either descriptions in each of the four dichotomies (http://www.2h.com/personality-tests.html) and he offers a personality test to determine the category. The four dichotomies are:
1. Extraversion Introversion
2. Sensing Intuition
3. Thinking Feeling
4. Judging Perceiving
Mr. Jumaboev answered the questions of the Jung’s Personality test, (which is attacked to the appendix), which resulted the following percentages:
1. Extroverted (E) 53.38% | Introverted (I) 41.62%
2. Sensing (S) 71.23% | Intuitive (N) 28.77%
3. Thinking (T) 63.89% | Feeling (F) 36.11%
4. Judging (J) 62.07% | Perceiving (P) 37.93%
Mullins L (2005) suggests that despite the closeness of the percentages in either of the four dichotomies, only those comparatively higher must still be chosen. This is especially the case for the first dichotomy because Mr. Jumaboev is more Extroverted than Introverted by only eleven percent. The final result is that Farxod Jumaboev is ESTJ = Extroverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging.
Mullins L (2005) describes ESTJ personality as “Practical, realistic, matter-of-fact; decisive, quickly move to implement decisions; organize projects and people to get things done, focus on getting results in the most efficient way possible; take care of routine details; have clear set of logical standards, systematically follow them and want others to also; forceful in implementing their plans” (p. 351).
Mr. Jumaboev is indeed quick to move to implement decisions. He had established a system that took away the study burdens from subjects which students didn’t need to enter their dreamed universities by setting logical standards. Also, he really does take care of routine details. A simple example is when the boarding school participated in national contest in celebration of the birthdays of two historical people: Alisher Navoiy and Zahiriddin M. Bobur in 2007, he not only ordered his staff to work out every detail but also supervised every detail. And this is only one small example.
Personality is “stable characteristics” but not unchangeable. People behave in various and unique ways. However, that behavior is either caused or stimulated. What causes or stimulates may be from personality or values. However, behavior can bear a different form. Tell the kid to clean his room so that he lives in a better environment; he cleans. Tell that kid to clean his room so that he can have his dreamed toy; the room will shine! Here, his behavior is being motivated just like any behavior can be motivated by various factors.
Motivation is “a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response” (Mukhamedova L, 2010). Motivation can be either internal or external. Internal motivations come from within, feelings of all sorts and external motivations come from without, and usually in monitory or other physical forms (Ken Shah & Param Shah, 2010). But often, internal motivation is strengthened by the external motivation or the vise versa.
For example, Mr. Jumaboev is achievement targeted person. Achievement motivates him to go extra mile and it originates from both within and without: the feeling of having achieved something and what you have achieved, regardless of its form: tangible or intangible. For 2005, Mr. Jumaboev achieved to reach a hundred percent of his students entering higher education (with one student who went to the army). The whole of that academic year, he had worked hard. The idea of achievement motivated him and he motivated his staff. That year, his school received the ‘best school in the region of the year’ award and himself ‘one of the best educator of the year’. So, the achievement motivation has actually the form of competence motivation and incentive motivation, as Ken Shah and Param Shah (2010) put it.
From the OB perspective, this is very necessary to know what motivates Mr. Jumaboev (assuming that he is in organization) because organization can direct is resources in using the right incentives in order to realize the full potential of Mr. Jumaboev to achieve the objectives of the organization.
Farxod Jumaboev is a good leader. He has demonstrated it over the course of his entire working period. He shows all the skills associated with a good leader. Coleman Patricia (2010) says that good leaders possess excellent communication, time management, organization, interpersonal, debating, and problem solving skills. Mr. Jumaboev has it all. In 2007, when I told him about my decision to study at WIUT and the problems I could face in achieving this, he had listened to me as if all he cared in the word was my concern, he had given me advices that worked best with my own time management, and he had convinced me that if I try hard I could achieve anything. And I am only one example that shows only his skills of a good leader.
Yet leadership is a complex notion. That is why there are many scholars who have devoted entire articles or even books on the leadership. However, in general, there are common types of leadership such as Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire. Autocratic leaders are sole deciders. They make the decisions without consulting other people. Democratic leaders are consulters. They first find out what everyone else thinks about whatever the issue that must be decided and then makes their decisions. Laissez-Faire leaders intentionally pass on the leadership responsibility to the majority.
From my observations from past experiences, I would say Farxod Jumaboev is an autocratic leader. He orders around and tells everyone what to do and forceful in implementing his decisions, which also explains his personality (refer to Personality subsection). However, deeper analyses prove this somewhat wrong. In truest reality, Mr. Jumaboev is a Democratic leader. He questions his staff, even students, learns their opinion, and then makes his decisions. It is only that he has done this in natural ways so that whenever he made his decisions, it appeared that he made his decision out of his own will.
Organizations, in learning and understanding Mr. Jumaboev’s leadership type, can benefit from it. He is a democratic leader, so staff him with specialists and knowledgeable employees. Mr. Jumaboev does hear what his staff have to say before he makes any decision. If Mr. Jumaboev had been an autocratic leader, the organization would have to invest on making him specialist and knowledgeable so that when he made decisions, his decisions would direct the organization towards achieving its objectives.
Team and group working skills
As the director and autocratic leader (assuming he is still in work), Farxod Jumaboev may not have high need for effective team working skills. Nevertheless, those skills will help not only in groups but in any conduct of life. Furthermore, temporary lack of need for team work skills should never be an excuse for a possible action. Yet, this does not mean that Mr. Jumaboev does not possess teamwork skills. It was through effective teamwork and other skills that he had managed to found the 24th boarding school in 1994 and directed it ever since until a year ago.
What are the team and group working skills in the first place and what are the benefits of those skills? There are again countless number of articles online and in print on this subject because unlike before, in today’s world, businesses have becoming more team oriented. Specifically, group and team working skill is described as “working confidently within a group, contributing own ideas effectively, taking a share of the responsibility, being assertive - rather than passive or aggressive, accepting and learning from constructive criticism and giving positive, constructive feedback to others” (University of Kent, 2010).
Mr. Jumaboev has been confident in everything he has done. Moreover, he always receives feedback whether praise or criticism, and gives feedback back with full honesty. And assertive, that is what he is.
The process of decision making is different from person to person. The personality, the leadership style, and other features of individuals affect the decision making process. For example, from Mr. Jumaboev’s personality being ESTJ, he “organizes projects and people to get things done… forceful in implementing his plans…” (Mullins L, 2005). From his democratic leadership, he learns the opinions of people he is leading and then makes decisions, (which also explains his group and team working skills). This should actually explain his decision making.
In fact, decision making is life long habit to Mr. Jumaboev. In all his employment, he has made many decisions. He recognizes that any job or project gets done only by deciding upon concerning issues. He first puts his attention to fully comprehend the issue necessary to make any decision. This involves asking his staff or even his students or talking with the representatives of the education department of city ‘Hokimiyat’. Note that this is exactly the picture of his leadership style as he is democratic leader. Once he has made his decision, he sets to implementing it, which is the picture of his ESTJ personality.
Individual behavior is how we as individuals behave ourselves. This behavior is subject to many personal traits as well as habits, values, perceptions, and other qualities and features. This reported has shown this in the example of Farxod Jumaboev, whose behavior may directly be affected by his personality, which is ESTJ, and his leadership type, which is democratic. He is achievement oriented person when it comes to being motivated or even motivating. And his group and team working as well as decision making skills are dominated by his personality and leadership type.
Coleman Patricia, (2010) Leadership in Organization, Available at: http://ezinearticles.com/?Leadership-in-Organization&id=436283
Ken Shah & Param Shah, (2010) Types of Motivation, Available at: http://www.laynetworks.com/TYPES-OF-MOTIVATION.html
Mukhamedova Lobar, (2010), Organizational Behavior, Lecture 2, WIUT
Mullins L, (2005), Management and Organizational Behaviour, 7th ed.
National Defense University, (2010) Strategic Leadership and Decision Making, Available at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch15.html
Oxford dictionary, (2010), Available at: www.oxford.co.uk/def/metaphor.html
Robbins, S. (2005) Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies and Applications, 11th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Ruth Damian, (2008) Images of Metaphors for Organization and strategy, Department of Management, Massey University, Wellington
Similar Minds, (2010) Big Five Personality Test, Available at: http://similarminds.com/personality_tests.html
University of Kent, (2010) Teamworking Skills, Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/teamwork.htm
Work Psychology Arena, (2010) Personality and Organizations, Available at: http://www.workpsychologyarena.com/personality-and-organizations-9780805837582